Seasonal Marsh

Avocets are seen almost exclusively in shallow wetlands in the Upper Klamath Basin. They build nests close to the water’s edge and will add nesting material to keep their eggs above rising water if necessary. photo by dave menke
Avocets are seen almost exclusively in shallow wetlands in the Upper Klamath Basin.
They build nests close to the water’s edge and will add nesting material to keep their
eggs above rising water if necessary.

Avocets are seen almost exclusively in shallow  wetlands in the Upper Klamath Basin.  They build nests close to the water’s edge and will add nesting material to keep their eggs above rising water if necessary.  photo by dave menke

The colorful downy young of American coots molt into drab adult plumage by late summer.  Unless wetlands are frozen for long periods, many coots spend the winter in the Upper Klamath and Tule Lake Basins.  photo by dave menke
The colorful downy young of American coots molt into drab adult plumage by late summer.
Unless wetlands are frozen for long periods, many coots spend the winter in the
Upper Klamath and Tule Lake Basins.

Within the Upper Klamath Basin watershed,  American coots are abundant year-round residents in all marshes,  lakes and wetlands. They create floating nests using cattails and bulrush.  photo by dave menke
American coots are abundant year-round residents in all marshes, lakes and wetlands within
the Upper Klamath Basin watershed. They create floating nests using cattails and bulrush.

Although American wigeon are seen year -round, their numbers peak during the spring and fall waterfowl migration periods.  They nest in relatively small numbers in brushy upland areas. photo by dave menke

Although American wigeon are seen year -round, their numbers peak during the spring and fall waterfowl migration periods.  They nest in relatively small numbers in brushy upland areas.  photo by dave menke

Although American wigeon are seen year -round, their numbers peak during the spring and fall waterfowl migration periods.  They nest in relatively small numbers in brushy upland areas.  photo by dave menke
Although American wigeon are seen year -round, their numbers peak during the spring and
fall waterfowl migration periods. They nest in relatively small numbers
in brushy upland areas.

Bald Eagles are present in the Upper Klamath Basin watershed year-round, but numbers  increase greatly peaking in mid-Feburary.  During the winter, bald eagles are seen primarily on refuges in the southern portion of the Basin. photo by dave menke
Bald Eagles are present in the Upper Klamath Basin watershed year-round, but numbers
increase greatly peaking in mid-Feburary. During the winter, bald eagles
are seen primarily on refuges in the southern portion of the Basin.

Bald Eagles are present in the Upper Klamath Basin watershed year-round, but numbers  increase greatly peaking in mid-Feburary.  During the winter, bald eagles are seen primarily on refuges in the southern portion of the Basin. photo by dave menke

Wintering bald eagles feed mostly on waterfowl and rodents found in wetlands and flooding farm fields. Prime viewing locations are Klamath Wildlife Area, Lower Klamath and Tule Lake National Wildlife Refuges. photo by dave menke
Wintering Bald Eagles feed mostly on waterfowl and rodents found in wetlands
and flooding farm fields. Prime viewing locations are Klamath Wildlife Area,
Lower Klamath and Tule Lake National Wildlife Refuges.

Black-necked stilts are seen in shallow marsh habitats along with American avocets. They probe marsh  bottoms for small  invertebrates.  Stilts  migrate from the Upper Klamath Basin watershed  during the winter. photo by dave menke
Black-necked stilts are seen in shallow marsh habitats along with American avocets.
They probe marsh bottoms for small invertebrates. Stilts migrate from the
Upper Klamath Basin watershed during the winter.

The drably colored female cinnamon teal is seen primarily in shallow wetlands.  Nests are located in heavy bulrush and cattail stands with 9-12 eggs laid and incubated by the female.  photo by dave menke
The drably colored female cinnamon teal is seen primarily in shallow wetlands.
Nests are located in heavy bulrush and cattail stands with 9-12 eggs laid and
incubated by the female.

Cinnamon teal are a common breeding species observed during the spring and summer months.  They are among the earliest fall migrant waterfowl to leave the Upper Klamath and Tule Lake Basins. photo by dave menke
Cinnamon teal are a common breeding species observed during the spring
and summer months. They are among the earliest fall migrant waterfowl to leave the
Upper Klamath and Tule Lake Basins.

Gadwall ducks are found in the Upper Klamath Basin wetlands throughout the year. Like most other duck species their numbers increase dramatically during the spring and fall migration periods. photo by dave menke
Gadwall ducks are found in the Upper Klamath Basin wetlands throughout the year.
Like most other duck species their numbers increase dramatically during the spring
and fall migration periods.

Gadwall ducks are found in the Upper Klamath Basin wetlands throughout the year. Like most other duck species their numbers increase dramatically during the spring and fall migration periods. photo by dave menke

Green-winged teal most often nest near water in dense stands of grass or brush.  They lay 9 to 14 eggs that typically hatch in late May. photo by dave menke
Green-winged teal most often nest near water in dense stands of grass or brush.
They lay 9 to 14 eggs that typically hatch in late May.

Green-winged teal numbers peak during the fall and spring migrations. Populations are lower in the Upper Klamath and Tule Lake Basins during summer  breeding season and mid-winter months. photo by dave menke
Green-winged teal numbers peak during the fall and spring migrations. Populations
are lower in the Upper Klamath and Tule Lake Basins during summer
breeding season and mid-winter months.

Long-billed dowitchers are common in shallow wetlands in the Upper Klamath and Tule Lake Basins during the spring, summer and fall. They are most often seen  in flocks of a few dozen to several hundred birds. photo by dave menke
Long-billed dowitchers are common in shallow wetlands in the Upper Klamath and
Tule Lake Basins during the spring, summer and fall. They are most often seen
in flocks of a few dozen to several hundred birds.

Mallards nest in dense vegetation, typically laying 8-12 eggs that hatch about mid-May. Mallards are the most common nesting duck species in the Upper Klamath Basin watershed. photo by dave menke
Mallards nest in dense vegetation, typically laying 8-12 eggs that hatch about mid-May.
Mallards are the most common nesting duck species in the Upper Klamath Basin watershed.

Mallards are abundant and widespread in all wetlands habitats throughout the year. They are most common  on shallow marshes and often feed on nearby grain stubble during the migration periods. photo by dave menke
Mallards are abundant and widespread in all wetlands habitats throughout the year.
They are most common on shallow marshes and often feed on nearby
grain stubble during the migration periods.

Merlins are small hawks seen in the Upper Klamath Basin during the fall and  winter.  They have been observed perching at the edge of wetlands on Lower Klamath Refuge and Klamath Wildlife Area. photo by dave menke
Merlins are small hawks seen in the Upper Klamath Basin during the fall and winter.
They have been observed perching at the edge of wetlands on Lower Klamath Refuge
and Klamath Wildlife Area.

The numbers of northern harriers, like many other raptors, increase dramatically during the winter months.  They are most often seen flying low over marshes and agricultural lands.  photo by dave menke

The numbers of northern harriers, like many other raptors, increase dramatically during the winter months.  They are most often seen flying low over marshes and agricultural lands.  photo by dave menke
The numbers of northern harriers, like many other raptors, increase dramatically
during the winter months. They are most often seen flying low over marshes and
agricultural lands.

Shovelers nest in grassy areas and hay fields sometimes up to a mile from the nearest water. Females lay and incubate 8 to 12 eggs that usually hatch in May. photo by dave menke
Shovelers nest in grassy areas and hay fields sometimes up to a mile from the nearest water.
Females lay and incubate 8 to 12 eggs that usually hatch in May.

Northern shovelers are very abundant in Upper Klamath Basin wetlands during the fall, winter and spring.  Although still common, their numbers decrease somewhat outside the migration periods. photo by dave menke
Northern shovelers are very abundant in Upper Klamath Basin wetlands during the
fall, winter and spring. Although still common, their numbers decrease somewhat
outside the migration periods.

Pied-billed grebes are commonly seen in all wetland habitats including irrigation  canals year-round. Their numbers decrease  somewhat during the winter months. photo by dave menke
Pied-billed grebes are commonly seen in all wetland habitats including irrigation
canals year-round. Their numbers decrease somewhat during the winter months.

Like other grebe species, pied-billed grebes construct floating nests of marsh vegetation. They lay and incubate 6 to 9 eggs that typically  hatch in June or July.  photo by dave menke
Pied-billed grebes, like other grebe species, construct floating nests of marsh vegetation.
They lay and incubate 6 to 9 eggs that typically hatch in June or July.

Large flocks of pintail may be observed during the spring and fall migrations on shallow marshes.  They are often seen in the tens of thousands on the White Lake Unit of the Lower Klamath Wildlife Refuge. photo by dave menke
Large flocks of pintail may be observed during the spring and fall migrations
on shallow marshes. They are often seen in the tens of thousands on the White Lake
Unit of the Lower Klamath Wildlife Refuge.

Pintails nest in small numbers in upland habitats in the Upper Klamath Basin.  They  nest a great distance from the shallow marshes where they are typically found.  They often feed in grain stubble near water. photo by dave menke
Pintails nest in small numbers in upland habitats in the Upper Klamath Basin.
They nest a great distance from the shallow marshes where they are typically found.
They often feed in grain stubble near water.

Rough-legged hawks are present in the Upper Klamath Basin watershed only during the winter months.  They migrate south from locations as far away as Canada and Alaska. photo by dave menke
Rough-legged hawks are present in the Upper Klamath Basin watershed only during
the winter months. They migrate south from locations as far away as Canada and Alaska.

Sandhill Cranes are both a migrant and breeding species.  During fall and spring migrations, hundreds may gather on Lower Klamath Refuge.  Nesting pairs  are easily seen in the spring on Klamath Marsh Refuge. photo by howard weston
Sandhill Cranes are both a migrant and breeding species. During fall and spring migrations,
hundreds may gather on Lower Klamath Refuge. Nesting pairs
are easily seen in the spring on Klamath Marsh Refuge.

Short-eared owls are an uncommon resident of the Upper Klamath Basin watershed.  They are  usually observed late in the day over open marshy  areas, grasslands or pastures.  photo by dave menke
Short-eared owls are an uncommon resident of the Upper Klamath Basin watershed.
They are usually observed late in the day over open marshy
areas, grasslands or pastures.

Snowy egrets breed and are commonly seen throughout the Upper Klamath Basin watershed during the spring, summer and early fall. They migrate out of the area during the winter. photo by dave menke
Snowy egrets breed and are commonly seen throughout the Upper Klamath Basin
watershed during the spring, summer and early fall. They migrate out of the
area during the winter.

Willets are a grassland nesting species usually seen in shallow wetlands in the Upper Klamath Basin watershed.  They are common during the spring and summer but migrate out of the Basin during the winter.  photo by dave menke
Willets are a grassland nesting species usually seen in shallow wetlands in the
Upper Klamath Basin watershed. They are common during the spring and summer
but migrate out of the Basin during the winter.

Snipe are a common but reclusive, year-round species of meadows and marshes.  In the spring and summer, snipe make a “winnowing” sound in their unique aerial display which occurs at dusk over marshes. photo by dave menke
Snipe are a common but reclusive, year-round species of meadows and marshes.
In the spring and summer, snipe make a “winnowing” sound in their unique aerial
display which occurs at dusk over marshes.

In the Upper Klamath Basin watershed, Wilson’s phalaropes are seen in shallow wetlands during the spring and summer. They stir up and feed on small invertebrates by rapidly spinning around in shallow wetlands. photo by dave menke
Wilson’s phalaropes are seen in shallow wetlands during the spring and summer in
the Upper Klamath Basin watershed. They stir up and feed on small invertebrates by
rapidly spinning around in shallow wetlands.

critters badge

Muskrats are a small aquatic mammal is very common in Upper Klamath and Tule Lake Basin wetlands. They are frequently observed in marshes, lakes, ponds, riparian areas and in irrigation canals.  photo by dave menke
Muskrats are a small aquatic mammal is very common in Upper Klamath and Tule Lake
Basin wetlands. They are frequently observed in marshes, lakes, ponds, riparian
areas and in irrigation canals.

point comfort habitats

upper klamath national wildlife refuge and winema national forest. photo by anders tomlinson.Riparian Habitat is located along the shoreline of rivers, lakes and wetlands within the Upper Klamath Basin watershed. Vegetation found in riparian habitats includes deciduous trees such as willow, cottonwood and aspen which are found along the shore lines of these water bodies. Many bird species use riparian habitats as travel corridors during the spring and fall migrations. Other birds may use riparian locations as favored sites for nesting and breeding.

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seagulls on old pilings, pelican bay, rocky point.  point comfort lodge.  photo by anders tomlinson.Deep water and permanent marshes are found in the Upper Klamath and Tule Lake Basins. Habitat includes Klamath, Williamson, Wood, Sprague, and Lost Rivers; Upper Klamath , Clear and Tule Lakes, many smaller deep wetlands
and permanent marshes. Fish eating species such as grebes,pelicans, gulls, terns and diving ducks use these wetlands. The vegetation growing in these wetlands
(primarily cattail and bulrush stands which are also called “tules”) provide habitat for rails, white-faced ibis, egrets, herons, yellow-headed black birds to name only a few.

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seasonal marsh habitat, upper klamath national wildlife refuge, point comfort lodge, rocky point, oregon. photo by anders tomlinsonAbundant shallow wetlands are found in the Upper Klamath and Tule Lake Basins. These wetlands have historically had water during the winter and spring, but tended to dry out during the summer and fall. Today, most wildlife areas and
refuges manage seasonal wetlands using water control structures to mimic this yearly wet and dry cycle. Wading shorebirds and dabbing ducks are among the diverse wildlife species commonly seen in seasonal marshes and wetlands.

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high elevation habitat icon. photo by anders tomlinson.High Elevation habitat are forests above 5,500 feet in the Upper Klamath and Tule Lake Basins consisting primarily of Douglas fir, western red cedar and true firs. These habitats are found mostly in the Cascade and Siskiyou mountains. Popular travel destinations with these habitats include Crater Lake National Park, Medicine Lake, Lake of the Woods and the Pacific Crest Trail. Wildlife species found in mountain meadows, streams and lakes as well as those seen above timberline are included in this habitat grouping.

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ponderosa and lodgepole pine habitat icon. photo by anders tomlinsonPonderosa and Lodgepole Pine habitat are usually found above juniper/sagebrush vegetation and at a lower elevation than Douglas fir and true fir habitats within the Upper Klamath Basin watershed.
Many cavity nesting bird species use the Ponderosa/lodgepole pine
habitat, particularly where past fires have created openings and
dead snags. Several species of woodpeckers, nuthatches and
flycatchers are commonly observed within this habitat.

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cropland and pasture habitat icon.  photo by anders tomlinson Cropland and pasture habitat are found mostly at the lower elevations (4,100-4,200) within the central and southern portions of the Upper Klamath Basin watershed. This category includes diverse areas within the Upper Klamath and Tule Lake Basins such as towns, smaller communities, rural residential areas, farms and ranches. The wildlife associated with these habitats have adapted to living close to human development and activities.

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